The anti-anxiety effects of ketamine are linked to changes in theta brainwaves

first_imgShare The anti-anxiety effects of ketamine are associated with specific brainwave changes, according to research published in the International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology.The study found the therapeutic effects of ketamine were linked to changes in theta brainwaves in the right frontal area of the brain.“Ketamine appears effective in a wide range of ‘neurotic’ disorders: generalised anxiety disorder, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, simple phobia, and social anxiety disorder — even when these are resistant to other treatments,” said study author Neil McNaughton of the University of Otago. Email “But no one knows how it achieves these effects. So we measured brain activity in treatment-resistant anxiety patients before and during ketamine treatment.”The researchers administered doses of ketamine to 12 patients with generalized anxiety disorder and/or social anxiety disorder, while monitoring their electrical brain activity.“Ketamine did not systematically change the left-right balance or complexity of brain rhythms; but had a very wide range of effects on their power — increasing fast ones and decreasing slow ones,” McNaughton explained to PsyPost.Ketamine was associated with reduced delta and theta brainwave oscillations, and increased gamma brainwave oscillations.However, “only decreases in one medium-low frequency band (theta) at one right-frontal site related to therapeutic improvement. So ketamine has many effects on the brain but only a small subset produce therapeutic action,” McNaughton said.Ketamine blocks the NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) glutamate receptor. But there is still much to learn about how the drug impacts on the brain.“This is a small, preliminary, study and — unlike a previous study from our laboratory — saw changes only in fear questionnaire scores but not Hamilton anxiety scale scores. It also only tested social and generalised anxiety patients,” McNaughton explained.“EEG testing with ketamine treatment of depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and simple phobia is needed to test how far the therapeutic link with theta rhythm is in general and how far it may be restricted to changes in anxiety. While we have demonstrated a specific brain change linked to therapeutic action, we still have no idea of the way that ketamine achieves this.”McNaughton was involved with a previous study that found ketamine produced rapid anti-anxiety effects, which lasted for 3 to 7 days at higher doses. “While it is effective, ketamine is not easy to administer and its actions appear to only last for about 1 week. Our results hint that its therapeutic action could be obtained with a more selective treatment, targeting right-frontal theta activity in particular, that may have fewer side effects, easier administration, and perhaps longer duration,” McNaughton said.The study, “Ketamine Effects on EEG during Therapy of Treatment-Resistant Generalized Anxiety and Social Anxiety“, was authored by Shabah Mohammad Shadli, Tame Kawe, Daniel Martin, Neil McNaughton, Shona Neehoff, and Paul Glue. Share on Facebookcenter_img Share on Twitter Pinterest LinkedInlast_img read more

Separated from parliament, will the Supreme Court become too powerful?

first_imgCreating the Supreme Court ‘as a result of what appears to have been a last-minute decision over a glass of whisky’ seems to verge on the frivolous, Lord Neuberger tells me. ‘You muck around with a constitution like the British Constitution at your peril, because you do not know what the consequences of any change will be.’ The law lord, who will be taking over as master of the rolls next month instead of joining the new Supreme Court, believes that taking Britain’s final court of appeal out of parliament should have been considered as part of a much wider review. ‘The law of unintended consequences is one of the most reliable pieces of law on the non-existent statute book,’ he adds. But Lord Turnbull, who was cabinet secretary in 2003 when Tony Blair unexpectedly announced several wide-ranging constitutional reforms, insists that they were not ‘thought up on the back of a fag packet’. Even so, he admits that the Supreme Court may be more assertive and difficult for a future government than the current law lords – a trend that can be seen already. Turnbull’s view is endorsed by Lord Falconer, who was appointed lord chancellor to see the reforms through. ‘I believe the effect of there being a Supreme Court will be to strengthen the judiciary in this country,’ he says. Falconer thinks the new court will be bolder, both in vindicating individual freedoms and being willing to take on the executive. The former minister frankly admits that this will lead to problems for future governments. All three peers were speaking to me for a Radio 4 documentary on the creation of the Supreme Court. The programme, Top Dogs: Britain’s Supreme Court, to be broadcast next week, reveals widely differing views on the court’s likely effect. Lord Bingham, the former senior law lord and a strong supporter of the Supreme Court, thinks it unlikely that the law lords will behave any differently now that they are no longer in parliament. ‘There is no question whatever of the Justices of the Supreme Court having a rush of blood to the head and saying: “Now we’re free of the constraints of being part of the House of Lords, we can throw our weight around and assert ourselves.”’ Bingham’s view is endorsed by the only woman in the new court. ‘I doubt very much whether it will change the way in which we do our work,’ says Lady Hale. ‘Our jurisdiction will be the same, our powers will be the same, we won’t get any greater or grander powers simply by becoming the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom.’ But Lord Collins, the only member of the court to have practised as a solicitor, is less sure. He believes it will evolve gradually into a different type of body – ‘perhaps not as pivotal as the US Supreme Court, but certainly playing a much more central role in the legal system and approaching the American idea of a government of laws and not of men’. Why should this be? Collins points to the anomalous position of the law lords – peers interpreting legislation that other peers have approved. ‘Once these anomalies are removed, it may be that the court will feel freer to have a more activist role,’ he says.Lord Phillips, who becomes president of the court next month, takes a more cautious approach. On the face of it, he says, the change is one of form rather than substance. The furthest that Phillips will go is to say the move ‘could well prove to be a catalyst for gradual change’. As an example, he says the new court may experiment with majority judgments, something that parliamentary procedure did not permit. But his deputy believes that having their own building – on the other side of Parliament Square – may not be in the judges’ interests. The law lords used to meet all sorts of people when they walked round the Palace of Westminster, Lord Hope explains. ‘I can’t say our conversation [was] particularly deep, but at least it keeps you in touch with humanity.’ Their rooms in the House of Lords were crammed into a single narrow corridor ‘where interaction is very easy and relationships are extremely good’. In the Supreme Court, the judges will be dispersed around four corners on two floors, ‘so that you have to make an effort actually to go and see somebody’. Will geography affect the way the court works? Hope says the answer to that is ‘completely unknown’. And that, of course, is Neuberger’s point. ‘The fact that one might not have designed the system if one was starting from scratch is, to my mind, no argument for saying that, therefore, the system should be changed,’ he explains. Neuberger fears that the Supreme Court, separated from parliament, ‘could start to become more powerful, to try to assert itself in a way that is… foreign to the British system and would lead to a real risk of confrontation between the judiciary and the legislature, and, indeed, between the judiciary and the executive.’ In his view, there is a real risk of judges arrogating to themselves greater power than they have at the moment. ‘Democratic accountability is fundamental. And while it’s right and proper that judges have independent power and provide a very important balance to the elected legislature and the non-elected executive, it’s dangerous if they get too much power.’ Don’t say you weren’t warned. Top Dogs: Britain’s Supreme Court will be broadcast on BBC Radio 4 on Tuesday 8 September at 8pm and repeated the following Sunday.last_img read more

Steubenville Big Red Finish Perfect Season; Top Clinton-Massie 50-36 to Capture Division IV State Title

first_img NEO HS Staff By Corey PerezCANTON, OHIO – One of the great things about high school football is that they bring communities together, and when you add in a football program that is notoriously known as successful, you get the Steubenville Big Red.A program that was seeking perfection. A perfection that only three other schools (of 719) had the opportunity to seek. That perfection was achieved as the Big Red finished off a perfect 15-0 season with a 50-36 over the Clinton-Massie Falcons Saturday in Canton. Achieving a state title and perfect season weren’t enough, Steubenville also finished a job that they were unable to do the last two seasons when the Big Red finished runners-up. Steubenville went into halftime with a 36-20 lead, and controlling the game, except for two special teams mistakes that allowed the Falcons to hang around. That is all Clinton-Massie needed as they scored the only points in the 3rd quarter to make it a one score game heading into the fourth 36-29.A Big Red senior class led by six All-Ohio performers, came up big this afternoon as one of their own got injured injured in the 2nd quarter, the Steubenville team came together and won the game for running back Jacob Bernard who suffered a lower leg injury after a promising start to the game. One player in particular stepped up, quarterback Javon Davis who accounted for 324 totals yards (111 rushing, 213 passing) and six touchdowns. When the Big Red needed a big play Davis would be the one to make it. Davis rushed for his two touchdowns in the fourth quarter when Steubenville need it most, one 13 yards and the other 44 yards. When the clock hit zero Big Red nation went crazy as they were finally experiencing that familiar championship feeling. A feeling that those Steubenville seniors will cherish for the rest of their lives. Related TopicsClinton-MassieJacob BernardJavon DavisSteubenville Big Redlast_img read more

Prep Wrestling Section Playoff Schedule

first_img 1080p HD About Connatix V56490 1/1 Section 8AAAWednesday February 12th (Top 4 Seeds Host)Sartell-St. Stephen vs. St. Cloud Tech           (7:00)Winner vs. Winner No. 1Willmar/No. 9 Buffalo (6:00) FridaySauk Rapids-Rive vs. Bemidji                                    (7:00)Winner vs. No. Bemidji/No. 3 Brainerd (6:00) FridayFriday February 14thFinal Four Sauk Rapids High School Section 6AAThursday February 13th (Top Four Seeds Host)Winner No. 8 Monticello/No. 9 Spectrum vs. No. 1 Becker (7:00)No. 5 Big Lake at No. 4 Albany (6:00)No. 7 Rocori vs. No. DC/L (6:00)February 14Final Four At Zimmerman (5:00/7:00)(Becker, Albany, Rocori)Section 7AATuesday February 11th       At Milaca (South Half)No. 6 Milaca-Faith Christian vs. No. 1 Foley (7:00)Winner vs. 5:00 FridayFriday February 14th Final Four @ ProctorSection 4AFriday February 14th At Howard Lake5:00/6:30/8:00(No. 2) Kimball vs. No. 6 St. Agnes (5:00)Winner vs. Winner of No. 3 HLWW/No. 6 Sibley East (6:30)Then the winner of EVW vs. Trinity (5:00)Will wrestle Winner of No. 1 ACGC/No. 8 NYA (6:30)Section 5A (7:00) Tuesday February 11th (Top four Seeds Host)(No. 5) Paynesville @ No. 4 Kerkhoven-Murdock-Sunburg (7:00)Winner vs. No. 1 Seed (Likely) LPGE/BR) 5:00Friday February 14th(Final Four @ Minnewaska High School (5:00/7:00)Section 7ASaturday February 15th At Royalton(No. 1) Royalton/Upsala vs. Winner of #8 Crosby-Ironton/#9 Ogilvie (12:00)Winner 2:00 vs. the Holdingford/Deer River dual (No. 5) Holdingford vs. (No. 4) Deer River (10:00) Visit Advertiser website GO TO PAGE Skip 360pcenter_img Foley’s Mitch Trigg with the pin to win the state semi final match. Photo courtesy of Aaron GouletIt’s playoff time for high school wrestlers in Central Minnesota. Roger Mischke provides a schedule to help you follow your favorite team. About Connatix V56490 Auto (360p) 720p HDlast_img read more